Compact, short-coupled dog, well knit in frame. Exhibiting great intelligence in expression; activity and buoyancy in deportment.
Sound, vivacious and dainty.
Extrovert, lively and intelligent.
Head and Skull
Head and nose foxy in outline, skull slightly flat, large in proportion to muzzle which finishes finely and free from lippiness. Nose black in white, orange and shaded sable dogs; brown in chocolate-tipped sable dogs, but in other colours may be self-coloured, never parti-coloured or flesh.
Medium size, slightly oval, not full, or set too wide apart; bright, dark and showing great intelligence. In white, orange, shaded sable and cream dogs, rims black.
Relatively small, not set too wide apart, nor too low down, but carried perfectly erect.
Jaws strong, with a perfect, regular and complete scissor bite, i.e. upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaws.
Rather short and well set into shoulders.
Shoulders clean and well laid back. Fine-boned legs, perfectly straight, of medium length in due proportion to size of dog.
Back short, body compact, well ribbed up, barrel well rounded. Chest fairly deep, not too wide but in proportion to size of dog.
Fine-boned, legs neither cow-hocked nor wide behind; medium angulation.
Small, compact and cat-like.
Characteristic of breed, high set, turned over back and carried flat and straight, profusely covered with long, harsh, spreading hair.
Free moving, brisk and buoyant.
Two coats, an undercoat and an outer coat. Former soft, fluffy; the latter long, perfectly straight, harsh in texture and covering whole of body; very abundant round neck and fore part of shoulders and chest; forming frill, extending over shoulders. Forequarters well feathered, thighs and hindlegs well feathered to hocks.
All whole colours permissible, but free from black or white shadings. Whole colours are: white, black, brown, light or dark, blue as pale as possible. Orange which should be self-coloured and bright as possible. Beaver. Cream dogs have black noses and black eye rims. Whites must be quite free from lemon or any other colour. A few white hairs, in any of the self-coloured dogs permissible but undesirable. Dogs (other than white) with white or tan markings highly undesirable and not considered whole coloured specimens.
Parti-coloured dogs, colours evenly distributed on body in patches. A dog with white or tan feet or chest should not be considered as a parti-coloured dog.
Shaded sables should be shaded throughout with three or more colours, the hair to be as uniformly shaded as possible, and with no patches of self-colour.
In mixed classes, where whole coloured and parti-coloured Pomeranians compete together, the preference should, if in all other points they are equal, be given to the whole coloured specimens.
Ideal weight: dogs: 1.8-2 kgs (4-41/2 lbs); bitches: 2-2.5 kgs (41/2-51/2 lbs).
Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
American - Pom Breed Standard
Official Standard of the Pomeranian
General Appearance: The Pomeranian is a compact, short-backed, active toy dog of Nordic descent. The double coat consists of a short dense undercoat with a profuse harsh-textured longer outer coat. The heavily plumed tail is one of the characteristics of the breed. It is set high and lies flat on the back. He is alert in character, exhibits intelligence in expression, is buoyant in deportment, and is inquisitive by nature. The Pomeranian is cocky, commanding, and animated as he gaits. He is sound in composition and action.
Size, Proportion, Substance: Weight - is from 3 to 7 pounds with the ideal weight for show specimens being 4 to 6 pounds. Any dog over or under the limits is objectionable; however, overall quality should be favored over size. Proportion - The Pomeranian is a square breed with a short back. The ratio of body length to height at the withers being 1 to 1. These proportions are measured from the prosternum to the point of buttocks, and from the highest point of the withers to the ground. Substance - Sturdy, medium-boned.
Head: Head - in balance with the body, when viewed from above, broad at the back tapering to the nose to form a wedge. Expression - may be referred to as fox-like, denoting his alert and intelligent nature. Eyes - dark, bright, medium sized, and almond shaped; set well into the skull with the width between the eyes balancing the other facial features. Eye rims are black, except self-colored in chocolate, beaver and blue. Ears - small, mounted high and carried erect. Proper ear set should be favored over size. Skull - closed, slightly round but not domed. Stop - well pronounced. Muzzle - rather short, straight, free of lippiness, neither coarse nor snipey. Ratio of length of muzzle to skull is ⅓ to ⅔. Nose - pigment is black except self-colored in chocolate, beaver and blue. Bite - scissors, one tooth out of alignment is acceptable. Major Faults - Round, domed skull. Undershot, overshot or wry bite. Disqualification - Eye(s) light blue, blue marbled, blue flecked.
Neck, Topline, Body: Neck - set well into the shoulders with sufficient length to allow the head to be carried proud and high. Topline - level from withers to croup. Body - compact and well ribbed. Chest - oval tapered extending to the point of elbows with a pronounced prosternum. Back - short-coupled, straight and strong. Loin - short with slight tuck-up. Croup is flat. Tail - heavily plumed, set high and lies flat and straight on the back. Major Fault - Low tail set.
Forequarters: Shoulders - well laid back. Shoulder blade and upper arm length are equal. Elbows - held close to the body and turn neither in nor out. Legs when viewed from the front are moderately spaced, straight and parallel to each other, set well behind the forechest. Height from withers to elbows approximately equals height from ground to elbow. Shoulders and legs are moderately muscled. Pasterns straight and strong. Feet- round, tight, appearing cat-like, wellarched, compact, and turn neither in nor out, standing well up on toes. Dewclaws may be removed. Major Fault - Down in pasterns.
Hindquarters: Hindquarters - angulation balances that of the forequarters. Buttocks are well behind the set of the tail. Thighs - moderately muscled. Upper thigh and lower leg length are equal. Stifles - strong, moderately bent and clearly defined. Legs - when viewed from the rear Page 2 of 3 straight and parallel to each other. Hocks when viewed from the side are perpendicular to the ground and strong. Feet same as forequarters. Dewclaws may be removed. Major Fault - Cowhocks, knees turning in or out or lack of soundness in legs or stifles.
Coat: The Pomeranian is a double-coated breed. The body should be well covered with a short, dense undercoat with long harsh-textured guard hair growing through, forming the longer abundant outer coat which stands off from the body. The coat should form a ruff around the neck, framing the head, extending over the shoulders and chest. Head and leg coat is tightly packed and shorter in length than that of the body. Forelegs are well-feathered. Thighs and hind legs are heavily coated to the hock forming a skirt. Tail is profusely covered with long, harsh spreading straight hair forming a plume. Females may not carry as thick or long a coat as a male. Puppy coat may be dense and shorter overall and may or may not show guard hair. A cotton type coat is undesirable in an adult. Coat should be in good and healthy condition especially the skirt, tail, and undercarriage. Trimming for neatness and a clean outline is permissible. Major Fault - soft, flat or open coat.
Color: All colors, patterns, and variations there-of are allowed and must be judged on an equal basis. Brindle - Dark cross stripes on any solid color or allowed pattern. Parti - White base with any solid color or allowed pattern. A white blaze is preferred on the head. Ticking is undesirable. Extreme Piebald - White with patches of color on head and base of tail. Piebald - White with patches of color on head, body, and base of tail. Irish - Color on the head and body with white legs, chest and collar. Tan Points - Any solid color or allowed pattern with markings sharply defined above each eye, inside the ears, muzzle, throat, forechest, all lower legs and feet, the underside of the tail and skirt. The richer the tan the more desirable. Tan markings should be readily visible. Major Fault - Distinct white on whole foot or on one or more whole feet (except white or parti) on any acceptable color or pattern. Classifications - The Open Classes at specialty shows may be divided by color as follows: Open Red, Orange, Cream, and Sable; Open Black, Brown, and Blue; Open Any Other Color, Pattern, or Variation.
Gait: The Pomeranians movement has good reach in the forequarters and strong drive with the hindquarters, displaying efficient, ground covering movement that should never be viewed as ineffective or busy. Head carriage should remain high and proud with the overall outline maintained. Gait is smooth, free, balanced and brisk. When viewed from the front and rear while moving at a walk or slow trot the Pomeranian should double track, but as the speed increases the legs converge slightly towards a center line. The forelegs and hind legs are carried straight forward, with neither elbows nor stifles turned in nor out. The topline should remain firm and level with the overall balance maintained.
Temperament: The Pomeranian is an extrovert, exhibiting great intelligence and a vivacious spirit, making him a great companion dog as well as a competitive show dog. Even though a Toy dog, the Pomeranian must be subject to the same requirements of soundness Page 3 of 3 and structure prescribed for all breeds, and any deviation from the ideal described in the standard should be penalized to the extent of the deviation. Disqualifications: Eye(s) light blue, blue marbled, blue flecked.
Approved July 12, 2011 Effective August 31, 2011
FCI - Breed Standard
FCI-CLASSIFICATION: Group 5 Spitz and primitive types.
Section 4 European Spitz.
Without working trial.
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: German Spitz are descendants of the stone age « Peat Dogs » (Torfhund) « Canis familiaris palustris Rüthimeyer » and the later Lake Dweller’s (Pfahlbau) Spitz; they are the oldest breed of dog in Central Europe. Numerous other breeds have been produced from them. In non-German speaking countries Wolfsspitz are known as Keeshonds and Toy Spitz as Pomeranians.
GENERAL APPEARANCE: Spitz breeds are captivating on account of their beautiful coats, made to stand off by plentiful undercoat. Particularly impressive is the strong, mane-like collar round the neck (ruff) and the bushy tail carried boldly over the back. The foxy head with alert eyes and the small pointed, closely set ears give the Spitz his unique characteristic, cheeky appearance.
IMPORTANT PROPORTIONS: The ratio of height at withers to body length is 1 : 1.
BEHAVIOUR AND CHARACTER: The German Spitz is always attentive, lively and exceptionally devoted to his owner. He is very teachable and easy to train. His distrust to strangers and lack of hunting instinct make him the ideal watchdog for home and farm.
He is neither timid nor aggressive. Indifference to weather, robustness and longevity are his most outstanding attributes.
CRANIAL REGION: The Spitz’s medium size head, seen from above, appears broadest at the back and tapers in wedgeshape to the tip of the nose.
Stop: Moderate to marked, never abrupt.
Nose: The nose is round, small and pure black, dark brown in brown Spitz.
Muzzle: The muzzle is not overlong and stands in pleasing proportion to the skull. (In Wolfspitz/Keeshond, Giant Spitz and Medium-size Spitz the ratio length of the muzzle to length of the skull is approximately 2:3, in Miniature Spitz and Toy Spitz approximately 2:4.).
Lips: The lips are not exaggerated, close fitting to the jaws and do not form any folds to the corner of the mouth. They are completely black in all colours, brown in brown Spitz.
Jaws/Teeth: The jaws are normally developed and show a complete scissor bite with 42 teeth, corresponding to the teeth formula of the dog, i.e. the upper teeth closely overlapping the lower teeth and set square to the jaws. In Miniature-and Toy (Pomeranian) Spitz the lack of a few premolars is tolerated. Pincer-bite is permissible in all varieties of the German Spitz.
Cheeks: The cheeks are gently rounded, not protruding.
Eyes: The eyes are of medium size, longish shape, slightly slanting and dark. The eyelids are black in all shades of colour, dark brown in brown Spitz.
Ears: The small ears are set high and relatively close to each other, triangular and pointed; they are always carried upright, stiff at the tips.
NECK: The medium length neck is set broadly into the shoulders, slightly arched without throatiness and covered by a thick, profuse coat forming a large ruff.
Topline: The topline starts at the tips of the erectly carried prick-ears and merges in a gentle curve with the short, straight back. The bushy, sweeping tail, which partially covers the back, rounds off the silhouette.
Withers / Back: The high withers drop imperceptibly into the shortest possible, straight, firm back.
Loin: Short-coupled, broad and strong.
Croup: The croup is broad and short, not falling away.
Chest: The deep chest is well sprung, the forechest well developed.
Underline and belly: The brisket reaches as far back as possible; the belly has only a slight tuck up.
TAIL: The tail is set on high and of medium length. It reaches upwards and rolls forward over the back, straight from the root. It lies firmly over the back and is covered with very bushy hair. A double curl at tip of tail is tolerated.
General appearance: Straight, rather broad front.
Shoulder: The shoulder-blade is long and well laid back. The shoulder is well muscled and firmly connected to the brisket.
Upperarm: The upper arm, which is approximately the same length as the shoulder-blade, forms an angle of 90 degrees to the shoulder-blade.
Elbow: The elbow joint is strong, close fitting to the brisket and turns neither in nor out.
Forearm: The forearm is of medium length in relation to the body, sturdy and completely straight. The back of the forearm is well feathered.
Metacarpus (Pastern): The strong, medium length front pastern stands at an angle of 20 degrees from the vertical.
Frontfeet: The frontfeet are as small as possible, round and closed, so called cat feet, with well arched toes.
Toe-nails and pads are black in all shades of colour, but dark brown in brown dogs.
General appearance: The hindquarters are very muscular and abundantly feathered to the hocks. The hind legs stand straight and parallel.
Upper and lower thigh: Upper and lower thigh are of about equal length.
Stifle (knee): The stifle joint is strong with only moderate angulation and is turned neither in nor out in movement.
Hock / hock joint: The hock is of medium length, very strong and vertical to the ground.
Hind feet: The hind feet are as small as possible, tightly closed with well arched toes, so called cat feet. The pads are coarse. The colour of nails and pads is as dark as possible.
GAIT/MOVEMENT: The German Spitz moves straight ahead with good drive, fluid and springy.
SKIN: The skin covers the body tightly without any wrinkles.
Hair: The German Spitz has a double coat : Long, straight, stand off top coat and short, thick, cotton-wool-like undercoat. Head, ears, front side of front and hind legs and the feet are covered by short, thick (velvety) hair. The rest of the body has a long rich coat. Not wavy, curly or corded, not parted on the back. Neck and shoulders are covered by a thick mane. The backside of the front legs is well feathered, the hind legs have ample feathering from croup to hocks. The tail is bushy.
a) Wolfsspitz/Keeshound : Grey shaded.
b) Giant-Spitz: Black, brown, white.
c) Medium size Spitz: Black, brown, white, orange, grey-shaded, other colours.
d) Miniature Spitz: Black, brown, white, orange, grey-shaded, other colours.
e) Toy Spitz/Pomeranian: Black, brown, white, orange, grey-shaded, other colours.
Black Spitz: In the black Spitz, the undercoat and skin must also be black and the colour on top must be a shining black without any white or other markings.
Brown Spitz: The brown Spitz should be uniformly dark brown.
White Spitz: The coat should be pure white without any trace of yellow in particular, which often occurs, specially on the ears.
Orange Spitz: The orange Spitz should be evenly coloured in the medium colour range.
Grey-shaded Spitz Keeshond / Keeshond: Grey-shaded is a silver grey with black hair-tips. Muzzle and ears dark in colour; round the eyes well defined « spectacles » shown as a delicately pencilled black line slanting from outer corner of eye to lower corner of ear, coupled with distinct markings and shading forming expressive short eyebrow; mane and ring on shoulder lighter; fore- and hindlegs without any black marking under the elbows or stifles, except slight pencilling on the toes; black tip of tail; underside of tail and trousers pale silver grey.
Other coloured Spitz: The term « other colours » covers all shades of colour, such as : cream, cream-sable, orange-sable, black and tan, and particolour (with white always as main colour). The black, brown, grey or orange patches must be distributed over the whole body.
SIZE AND WEIGHT:
Height at the withers: a) Wolfspitz/Keeshond 49 cm +/- 6 cm
b) Giant Spitz 46 cm +/- 4 cm
c) Medium size Spitz 34 cm +/- 4 cm
d) Miniature Spitz 26 cm +/- 3 cm
e) Toy Spitz/Pomeranian 20 cm +/- 2 cm Dogs under 18 cm undesirable.
Weight: Each variety of German Spitz should have a weight corresponding to its size.
FAULTS: Any departure from the foregoing points should be considered a fault and the seriousness with which the fault should be regarded should be in exact proportion to its degree and its effect upon the health and welfare of the dog.
Faults in construction.
Head too flat; distinct apple head.
Flesh-coloured nose, eyelids and lips.
In Wolfspitz/Keeshond, Giant Spitz and Medium size Spitz missing teeth.
Faults in movement.
In grey-shaded Spitz missing of distinct markings of the face.
Aggressive or overly shy.
Any dog clearly showing physical or behavioural abnormalities shall be disqualified.
Gap in fontanel.
Over-or undershot bite.
Ectropion or entropion.
Definite white patches in all not white Spitz.
Any colour that has the merle factor.
N.B.: Male animals should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.
The latest amendments are in bold characters.